09.28.20 – 10.04.20

Readings

Exodus 20:1-20 • Psalm 80:7-15 • Isaiah 5:1-7 • Matthew 21:33-46 • Philippians 3:4-14

Context

Exodus 20:1-20

We usually miss the splendor of our Exodus passage – the giving by God, to the Hebrews, the ten commandments. This, too, is probably the reason we also miss the true meaning and weight of sin. As I pointed out in the Sunday message, the Hebrews coming out of the oppression of slavery in Egypt were, in many ways, like children.  They had never lived in freedom, they had never been given the choices that freedom now gave – their lives had basically been lived in survival mode.  Now, God is telling them the basic of how to live and how to relate to each other.  The ten commandments are basically a ‘How to live in freedom and in Community.’  God gave them this gift (and it was a gift as they were the only people receiving this gift) so they could stay free and not enslave themselves to something, or someone, else.  It is a guide of how to trust God, ‘you don’t need to steal because God will provide’, etc. Freedom comes with responsibility to others – the commandments are actually the first lesson in Loving God and Loving others.

Psalm 80:7-15

Three of our passages for this week use the metaphor of a vineyard.  The Psalm passage is actually an answer to the other two – ‘we cry out to God to restore us.’ This, final answer, is then named in the Matthew passage as we see the vineyard owner sending the ‘son’.  This Psalm as it cries for restoration is a recognition that we are unable, apart from God, to produce the fruits that God is calling us to produce.  Read this passage, then, after you read the Isaiah and Matthew passages, return to this passage again

Isaiah 5:1-7

• Isaiah is speaking but the words are directly from God to all the people.

  • This Isaiah passage was probably on the minds of the people as they listened to the parable of Jesus in our Matthew passage.  In that passage Jesus is largely confronting the religious leaders and how they have swayed from leading the people to God, instead, making their faith about religious practices and rules – in Isaiah, God is speaking to all the Israelites about the shallowness of their faith and the resulting abuse and neglect of their neighbors (see v.8-12 to understand this).
  • The Israelites are divided.  What was the nation of Israel has now split into Israel and Judah.
  • God is confronting the fact that this vineyard, a vineyard that he planted and nurtured, has grown wild grapes (referring to the people) instead of what he originally planted. He begins by reminding them of his love but in the end, God is warning the people of the doom ahead.

Matthew 21:33-46

As with last week, and in the coming weeks, we find Jesus in the temple.  This is the week that will end with the cross.  Last week Jesus’ authority was questioned by the High Priests and Elders, now, as this continuation continues we see that they have been joined by the Pharisees.  While this engagement began with these first century Jewish leaders asking the questions, now we see that Jesus has become the one asking the questions.  Last week the question was about authority to which Jesus responded by pointing out their lack of honesty, this week we see in the parable, Jesus confronting these religious leaders themselves. In verse 45 we see that the religious leaders realize that Jesus is comparing the tenants in the parable to them.

While there is an implicit reference to the ‘cornerstone’, this parable is primarily aimed at the leaders failures. Jesus is now speaking to the leaders, and the two parables after this one will also be aimed at the leaders (the remaining religious leaders will gather with this group for those parables – the Herodians, Sadducees, and the Scribes).

Three things to consider:

  1. As the vineyard owner sends his servant, and eventually his own son, to collect the produce/fruits, think back to Matthew 5:1-12.  This is the produce that is being collected, this is what the tenants were meant to produce.  Jesus is confronting the leaders’ failures to lead out and produce the characteristics spoken to in Matthew 5.
  2. Look at the quick and brutal response of the leaders when asked ‘what will the owner do to these tenants?’
  3. As you read our Philippians passage, think if there could be a sameness in what Jesus and Paul are saying.

Philippians 3:4-14

As we have seen, Paul, in his letter to the church at Philippi is reminding the Philippians that they have not yet arrived in their faith, they are still learning and growing.  As we learned Sunday, Paul is addressing a divisive risk they are facing within their fellowship.  Paul’s overriding message is ‘work out your salvation.’ In this passage Paul reminds the people to not look back at what they have achieved, to not boast in the past, but look ahead at all that God is doing and what it is that he is doing in others as well – this passage is a particular passage to ‘not get stuck in what you have achieved and understand’, instead let God continue to grow you in your understanding (and sometimes correct you in your misunderstanding).

09.21.20 – 09.27.20

Readings

Exodus 17:1-7 • Ezekiel 18:1-32 • Psalm 25:1-9 • Philippians 2:1-13 • Matthew 21:23-32

Context

Exodus 17:1-7

The Israelites are in the midst of learning the life of deliverance and freedom.  They are learning that is not really easier than living in slavery, it is just a different struggle (at least at this point).  To complicate matters, they are also adjusting to God who they are actually just meeting. God is introducing himself to them in a very intentional way – through his grace.  They complain and God, in his grace, meets the need behind their complaints.  They complain about something else, and again, God meets the need behind their complaints with patience that flows from his grace. God knows this people and is aware that this is how they will learn. God is becoming known by revealing the driving force of his power, the grace that flows through the Love of God for this people.

In our Exodus 16 passage we looked at last week, God dealt with the complaint of hunger by promising to provide for them daily, and in that very graceful provision, the people would remember him.  This week the people are thirsty, they need water so they complain. God gives water but does so in a spectacular way that can will be a memory for the people of a moment that God provided.  

God’s power gets attention, and the memory of that power reminds them of God, but it is through the source of that power, God’s grace nature, that the people truly meet God.

Ezekiel 18:1-32

The prophet Ezekiel was active around the same time as the prophet Jeremiah. That means that he too, was calling a people back to God and ultimately explaining to them what the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile were all about.  This passage probably took place around the same time as the destruction so it was fresh on the listeners minds.  Also, you may remember Jeremiah and Isaiah confronting the people about their own shallow and lukewarm religious practices – Ezekiel is talking on this same thread but addressing the faithlessness of the parents of these people.  Just like the cycle of abuse that we still see take place in our day, Ezekiel is attributing this same reality to their religious practices – that a lukewarm parent will lead to a religiously lukewarm child who becomes a lukewarm adult.  Ezekiel assures the people that they will not suffer for the sins of their parents, but then stresses that each person is responsible for their own actions and faith regardless of their parents.  In explaining the ‘why’  of the horrible times he is still placing personal responsibility on each person.

Psalm 25:1-9

Our Psalm for this week has an emphasis on forgiveness and leading.  Possibly read verses 5-6 first and then go back an read all of the passage with you point of reference being these two verses – let it be an anchor that ties it together, and actually ties it with our other readings for this week.

Matthew 21:23-32

While this is not the time on our calendars for our focus on Easter, nevertheless, we are now in the middle of Holy Week (at least in our Matthew readings).  This actually might be a good thing as it can permit us to see some things that took place during the time we easily miss in the Easter season.  For example, our passage for this week is one of those that leads us to ask a very important question – ‘Why Jesus?’

This story takes place after Jesus had triumphantly entered the Jerusalem to the cheers of the crowds. It is also after the cleansing of the temple, so his presence is acutely known by the religious and political leaders.

It would not have been uncommon for many things, including many different teachers to be happening in all the corners and crevices of the temple square.  Usually Rabbis would be in different locations around the temple square teaching their followers.  This is what was taking place with Jesus, he had a group of followers, and periphery persons, listening to his teaching. 

It is during this teaching that we see a transition take place.  Up to this point, we have been accustomed to the religious leaders in the communities come to speak with, or confront Jesus, we have also seen the Pharisees seek him out for the same purpose – these leaders have very limited power to specifically do anything about this ‘Jesus Problem.’  Now Jesus is teaching and we see the head religious officials, the high priests and others who actually have power coming forth.  They are Jews with the right religious genealogy, and they have power to act as the Roman government has put them into power.  The religious leaders have two concerns on this day about Jesus.

First, a major aspect of keeping their power is by keeping control of the people. Jesus’ is an unknown to them, they are unsure of how his presence is going to play out while he is in Jerusalem.  They are unsure the impact he will have on the crowd.  They are deciding how best to deal with this potential crisis.

The second concern comes from their responsibility as religious leaders, they had a sincere desire to make sure that what was being taught was accurate.  They were tasked with monitoring the teachers to make sure the people were not listening to heretical teachings.

So, they, leaders with man given authority, begin to ask Jesus, who has God given authority, where his authority comes from to teach the things he is teaching.

They are fearful of what Jesus will say, they are cautious about over stimulating the crowds, they are concerned about what the Roman officials are hearing, and they are concerned about doing what is right.  It is a lose lose situation.  It is the beginning of the week which will conclude at an empty grave.

Philippians 2:1-13

Paul, in his writing to the church at Philippi, expresses his love and gratitude for this body of believers.  In two weeks, as we hit chapter four, we will see that there is a conflict between two women in the church.  This conflict is obviously on his mind even as he is writing chapter two.  Philippi is a majority Roman city, it is also a very diverse city, and a diverse church, in almost every aspect.  This diversity often leads to differences which Paul is addressing as he speaks of unity.  He is telling the followers there to remember that God is in work in the lives of each of the believers and therefore, each member must have a care for each other. 

09.14.20 – 09.20.20

Readings

Psalm 145:1-8 • Exodus 16:2-15 • Jonah 3:10-4:11 • Matthew 20:1-16 • Philippians 1:21-30

Context

Psalm 145:1-8

This Psalm can best be summed up in verse 8, a proclamation of who God is that echoes the understanding that Jonah has about God, and therefore, his grievance against God. It is our best baseline of understanding to have as we read all of our passages for this week.  This is the reason we are looking at it first this week.

Jonah 3:10-4:11

First, if you have time, read the complete story of Jonah, it is a short & good read.  

Jonah is a story of the prophet Jonah who understood the merciful character of God but did not want God to be merciful to anyone other than the Israelites.  He especially does not want God’s mercy to be given to Assyrians or to the Ninevites.  This story is a perfect visual for the lesson of Jesus’ parable we have in our Matthew passage. 

Jonah is called by God to go east to Nineveh, instead, he goes west.  On the escape west, he converts a boatload of gentiles, then he is swallowed by a large fish.  When the fish spits him up at Nineveh, Jonah, begrudgingly, preaches the worst sermon in history, in our language it amounts to eight words (no, I will not be preaching an eight word sermon this Sunday), ‘Forty days and Nineveh shall be no more.’ He probably just ended with a period, not the usual exclamation point of a prophet – such was his lack of concern or fervor. When the Assyrian King, and the people of Nineveh, repent God relents and shows mercy.  Jonah is mad, he knew God was merciful, it was an aspect of God he loved, except when it was shown to the people of Nineveh.

Apply the lesson of Jesus parable in Matthew to the unhappy story of Jonah – what are the applications and revelations?

Exodus 16:2-15

Change is difficult. During this time of Covid, when our reality has changed in such a way that we know it will probably never return in entirety, we are especially cognizant of this truth.  The Israelites are in this time of change, and it is difficult.  They have just seen the glorious, amazing, miraculous, their rescue by God, and now they are complaining and wishing they could go back. They are in a struggle of giving up their old identity of ‘slaves’, an identity they knew, for a new identity of ‘free and liberated’.  While conceptually, freedom and liberation should not be a struggle, they are.  It takes a lot of trust to endure the uncertainty of ‘what is next.’  Over the past decades we have seen countries come to a measure of freedom and liberation only to end up fighting amongst themselves about ‘who they are.’

The reading of this passage can enlighten each of us to our own struggle with justice and fairness.  What is your attitude toward the Israelites when you read that they are complaining so shortly after their rescue from God? What is your immediate expectation when God hears that the people are grumbling against him?  How do you react to God granting their complaining requests in a positive fashion?  Ask yourself, ‘what do my own responses say about my views of justice, fairness, and God’s grace?

Matthew 20:1-16

Our context for this passage requires us to go in a different direction than we usually go.  Instead of looking back to see what had just happened, we must look forward to see what is about to happen. This directional change requires that we look into the mind of Jesus, into the plan of God.  In chapter 21 we have the account of the Triumphal entry into Jesus, it is the kickoff for what we call ‘Holy Week’. 

The book of Matthew gives us a great deal of detail of the interactions and teaching of Christ during this week that begins with the triumphal entry and ends with the resurrection.  It is a brutal and painful week that ironically begins with the celebratory parade like atmosphere as Jesus enters the city of Jerusalem – a celebration that will soon change to jeers and screams for Jesus’ death.

The reason this forward look is vital to understanding this parable of Jesus in our Matthew 20 passage is that it gives us an insight into the motivation of Christ to embark on this teaching on Grace and Justice.  In approaching this passage, remember that the cross is clearly on his mind as he shares this story. Also, remember that Jesus always had a burning passion that his followers, especially those that would assume leadership after his accession, understand the essential truths of grace and justice. This parable is actually a probe into the minds of the disciples seeking to measure the extent of their ‘hunger and thirst for righteousness’ and of those things that acts as barriers to the pursuit of that ‘hunger and thirst’.  Barriers such as the earthly ways of thinking of justice and fairness.

Have these questions on your mind as you read this parable:

  1. Would the statement ‘You have made them equal to us’ have been the thought in your head if you had been one of the original workers hired? Why?
  2. Why did the original workers assume that they would be paid more than the workers that were hired later in the day? What would be your response to the master if he responded to you, ‘This is what you agreed to work for when I hired you.’ (?)
  3. Why were the people later in the day not already working?

Philippians 1:21-30

Although our assignment is narrowed down to these ten passage, take a few extra minutes to read the entire chapter.  Put yourself into the place of Philippian readers of this letter from Paul, a letter than is uniquely meant for the members of the church in Philippi.  A few context notes as you put yourself in their shoes.

  1. Paul is writing this from his imprisonment.  It is possibly a house arrest which was still brutal.  The Philippians had sent someone to make sure that Paul had food and care during his confinement.  There was an understanding that many did not survive even this type of imprisonment.
  2. This is a letter of sincere friendship and deep gratitude for the Philippians.
  3. The Philippians are in a time of political oppression and abuse. Paul is encouraging them to continue them to be faithful to the gospel, to live above reproach, even in this time of uncertainty and brutality (this has a direct correlation of Paul’s reminder to the Romans in chapter 13 to live in submission to the authorities – not to live outside of their faith, but to continue permitting their faith in to govern their day to day life). 
  4. Paul tells them that he is ‘confident that God will bring them to completion by the day of Christ.’

In a way, this is a could be a letter to our church in this time of uncertainty.  Gratefulness for your faithfulness in difficult times.  It is a manner of looking for God’s grace when things do not look so graceful.

09.07.20 – 09.13.20

Genesis 50:15-21

  • The context needed going into our passage for this week is fairly simple (although, those who lived it out would see not way to call it simple, instead, words like painful, complicated, dysfunctional, excruciating would be chosen). Since we are able to look back at the story, in a very non emotional manner due to the fact that we were not a participant in this story, let’s make a ‘simple’ list:
  • Jacob, the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham had twelve sons by two wives and two concubines. His favorite of these women was unabashedly Rachel, and the favorite sons were the two birthed by Rachel, Joseph and Benjamin.
  • Joseph, as a child and teen, was not the most intuitive individual, he appears to have not recognized his favored position, and frequently flaunted it before the other brothers. In addition to this, as God gives a vision of greatness to Joseph, he is quick to share that with them as well. As expected, Joseph was the little brother from hell who was despised and true hated by his bothers.
  • The brothers, reach a final straw and sale Joseph into slavery, after, almost killing him.
  • Joseph during a time in slavery and in prison, during which time he becomes a not only bearable human being but a trusted and admired leader in the foreign land of Egypt.
  • Joesph save his family from starvation, proclaims forgiveness for his brothers’ actions, and moves them to Egypt.

This brings us to our passage for this week where we see father Jacob dying causing the brothers great anxiety as they consider the possibility that Joesph’s forgiveness was dependent on the existence of Jacob.

Exodus 14:19-31

Our Exodus passage is the next phase of the deliverance of the Israelites. Pharoah released them following the tenth plague, the death of the first born males, to which they made a quick exit. They did not have time to celebrate this long awaited freedom, however, they already had the night before as they instituted the hugely significant celebration of the Passover feast…a celebration that proceed the event they celebrated. God had told them to be ready to exit Egypt and they were. In this week’s passage we see the ‘why’ a quick exit was necessary

Psalm 103:1-13

This Psalm is written in a very unique poetic Hebrew style. While we are accustom to Psalm passage being written in literary manners such as the use of poetics, this one is different in that it is written by a Psalmist who is actually writing it for himself/herself. It is very personal, as the writer is calling themselves to a time of intentional time of praise in recognition of God’s mercy.

Matthew 18:21-35

Two contextual perspectives help as we approach our passage for this week. First, look at it from a the shoes of Peter. Peter has voiced the risky, vulnerable, and accurate, revelation of the person of Jesus Christ. This was a verbal identification that the other disciples were still grappling with and/or just afraid of the ramification of saying it out loud –  ‘You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God.’ This was a high moment for Peter, he was called a ‘Rock’ by Jesus and proclaimed the leader to the disciples when Jesus would be gone. However, it was a personal high for just a short time, he was soon called ‘Satan’ by Jesus, as Peter sought to detour Jesus from his journey to the cross which had already begun. Peter’s had walked on water with Jesus and then had to be rescued by Jesus.

The second perspective is the direction that Jesus is now heading. He is now going in the direction of the cross, he is heading into the danger zone of Jerusalem. His teachings have become more specifically directed at his followers, the crowded events are much less likely. The transfiguration has also taken place – an undeniable revelatory event which was witnessed by a small group of the disciples including Peter.

Our passage for this week is a passage of the communal relationships of the believers, what will soon be known as the ‘church.’ This focus on the church began in our readings last week as the conflict resolution steps were laid out in the beginning of chapter 18. Peter, being a person of action, is now attempting to

receive further guidance on the topic of forgiveness.

Romans 14:1-12

This will be our final reading in Romans for awhile and it ties in with our lesson on community that we had in the Matthew passage for this week. Paul is speaking to the church about community, and about acceptance of differences of people and differences in faith practices.

It seems to be a particularly relevant today when we have so much division within the church based on countless practices, emphasizes, theologies, politics, and traditions.

08.31.20 – 09.06.20

Readings

Exodus 12:1-14  •  Ezekiel 33:7-11  •  Psalm 119:33-40  •  Romans 13:8-14  •  Matthew 18:15-20

Context

Exodus 12:1-14

A great danger of a story such as our passage for this week, and the entire story of Moses, is that we are so familiar with it, we just stop at our beginning understanding and knowledge.  Read this passage like it is the first time, search for that which you have, somehow, never seen.

There is a lot of context that can be missed when we are jumping forward in such swaths as we are.  We last saw Moses as he is receiving God’s call to return to Egypt, a place where he expects no welcome, and, worse, he knows, very well, he could be arrested for murder. Since that part of the story, Moses has returned, gone to Pharoah ten times demanding, on part of God, that the Israelites be released, each time Pharoah says ‘no’.  He has just left warning Pharoah that the 10th plague will be the death of the firstborn in each household. Pharoah don’t listen, hear, or take note of the warning.

Our passage today is the instructions for the first passover meal.  A meal, obeserved every year after this instruction,  takes place before the actual event that is remembered in the meal. The people will celebrate the passover before the first ‘passing over’ even takes place.

Celebrating God’s act of rescue, before the rescue has even taken place, is an odd celebration – it is also a act of trust and hope.

Psalm 119:33-40

The number 119 associated with the book of Psalm may create a Déjà vu

 moment for you.  That makes sense as we have been in Psalm 119 several times in the past months.  Afterall, Psalm 119 is the longest Pslam and the longest book in the entire Bible. With 172 verses, there is a lot of truth to be considered in this book.  Most often, if not always, the focus that we find in Psalm 119 is on the issue of God’s truth, or truth.  Searching for it, seeking it, grabbing ahold of it, living it…. Truth is the guide and balance of life. The direction the Psalmist takes in this passage is to seek those things out that detour us from God’s path.  Those things particularly to us that act as roadblocks and misdirections in our journey. The Psalmist is begging God to remove those things that detour him/her and, instead, take us to truth and life.

Ezekiel 33:7-11

Ezekiel was a prophet with the same mission as we see given to Isaiah and Jeremiah, a mission to call the people back to God. He, like Jeremiah lived to see the destruction of Judah, Jerusalem, and the temple.  He was among the huge group exiled to Babylon as slave.  To grasp the magnitude of Ezekiels’ statement in our passage for this week, it is important that we remember that Ezekiel, himself, experienced the pain and suffering at the hands of the Babylonians. He knew their evil first hand.  

In this passage there are two main callings, the first is to point out evil, and the second is to recognize forgiveness….to those who have been the instigators of the evil.  Ezekiel is, in not way, soft of crime (no matter who does it), however, he is also just as dogmatic on people receiving a second chance after punishment and correction have taken place.  This forgiveness followed by a second chance is at the forefront of what his is teaching from God and, it is at the forefront of a society moving forward, and, even more so, of us all understanding the coming grace sacrifice of God’s son Jesus.

Matthew 18:15-20

This passage is familiar to many of us, it a very simple, and harrowing, guide for keeping relationships healthy, deeper, it is a call to the church to not get sidetracked from God’s calling.

There are two levels of contextual background that will help us as we traverse these teachings of Jesus.  The first is to remember, and understand, Jesus’ call for us to all live by a higher bar.  By the time Jesus is born, there have been 400 years since the last prophet spoke. Some call this time between the Old and New Testament as the period where God did not speak.  True, or not, we do not see the robots confrontation and encouragement from the prophets that had been common to this time. The result is that humans, particularly the religious leaders, in the absence of the prophetic voices,  had taken matters, and control, into their own hands.  Strict rules were established so that no one broke the laws given by God.  Therefore, the command from God to keep the Sabbath holy, became an intricate series of guidelines defining what may, and what may not, be done on the Sabbath.  How far you can walk, the types of ‘work’ you can engage in without violating the Sabbath law, and, in case these rules were not enough, consequences for the violations were also determined.

Human law usually leads very careful inspections of the rules by those who would seek to push the boundaries.  Therefore, more rules were made and more consequences were given.  If someone is smart and calculated, however, they can get away with anything.  The results were an avalanche of hypocrisy by those who were the most demanding while, at the same time, the worst offenders of the spirit of God’s law.

In his first sermon, Jesus dared to approach this reality.  He names the laws, but then, he raised those very laws.  He confronted the attitude that I am still following the law if I make use of every loophole I can find. Jesus told the people that it was not enough to externally observe a law – he raised the bar by explaining that it was not our actions but our heart.  So, hate was elevated to murder, lust elevated to adultery, and envy was elevated to theft.  Jesus was not just taking the 440 years of religious leaders restrictive works, instead, he was taking us behind the law and highlighting the reasons, and revelations, or our sinful actions.

Jesus is not setting up additional fences in order to force believers to stay within their own yard and behave, instead, he had placed the followers into a ‘boot camp’ where he was leading them ‘into their calling.  He defines this himself in Matthew 13. Take a moment to go back to Matthew 5 and see the ‘impossibilities’* of his ‘raising the bar.’

The second context we must realize comes just before our Matthew passage.  During a discussion of ‘greatness’ and ‘importance’, Jesus stands a child in the middle of the followers, pointing out that this child, and all others like him/her, those who are powerless and vulnerable (of all ages) are the mission of the church. They are to look out for, and speak up for those who have a limited ability to speak and stand for themself.  He has now actually expanded his call to stand for the oppressed.

In Jesus teachings, he is, in a greater and more potent manner, exhorting the followers to take care of those who are unable to care for themselves.

Now with this precedent of setting the bar higher, and calling the church to the mission of caring for the oppressed, Jesus is now encouraging the church to rid themselves of those things that distract them from their calling.  Work out disaggrements instead of dragging others into the fight – a fight that will destroy the church’s impact on the vulnerable and the hurting of God’s creation.

*Jesus expansion of the actions such as hate, envy, and lust, to a reclassifications of murder, theft, and adultery are not setting us up for failure, but, instead pulling us away from the stance of resistant obedience and, instead, to a heart that motivates and drives our actions.

Romans 13:8-14

We are nearing the end of the book of Romans.  The journey through this book can be somewhat exhausting, not because of length, there are only 16 chapters, but because of the depth and width of Paul’s teachings take behind the easy explanations that we so often settle for.  Consider the many weeks we spent on Paul explaining the motivation aspect, the behind the scenes understandings, of the sin. The revelations of sin being a action that we a symptom of a deeper problem, a foundational cancer that is never solved our our judgement or condemnation.  

Now, in this week’s passage, Paul begins to narrow life and theology down even further, bringing us to a recognition of the underlying missing essential element of life – love.  Paul tells us that we had to have love, we have to act out of love, we have to relate on the path of love.  It takes Jesus’ raising of the bar and opens up the roof to the standard set, not by man, but by God himself.

The main challenge of our time is to live with a transformed mind, a mind that is open to the other and leads to inner transformation. It is crucial for Christians to consider each human being as a loving partner on the journey of life, and to live each day beyond the self. The church is indeed a place where persons can be organized, socialized, and mobilized to effectively love others. Like art, love can be used as a way for people to express, explore, and perceive the world in new and revitalizing ways. To grow in love is surely a constant form of growing in creative labor. If love does not dictate the way people treat each other, the human family will slide into the darkness that Paul talks about in Romans 13:12-13.

Israel Kamudzandu, Saint Paul School of Theology

Consider this

Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.  

Romans 13:8

08.24.20 – 08.30.20

Readings

Exodus 3:1-15 • Jeremiah 15:15-21 • Psalm 26:1-8Matthew 16:21-28Romans 12:9-21

Context

Exodus 3:1-15

The events of the life of Moses between the heroic acts of the five women who risked their own lives to safe the life of the 3 month hold Moses, and the time of this week’s passage are the context we need to know.  First, there was an increase in violent hostilities by the Egyptians towards the Hebrews enabled by the hatred of Pharoah toward the Israelites.  Second, After Moses ran away after murdering an Egyptian. So, in this week’s passage we find that Moses is a wanted man on the run, no longer protected by being a part of Pharoah’s family, and now, God is calling him to go back to Egypt.

One more essential context note – the people were four hundred years after Joseph and knowledge of the God of Joseph.

Don’t allow overly familiarity keep you from really pondering and struggling with this passage, it is in the struggle that we we see the greatest, and most applicable, truth. 

Jeremiah 15:15-21

This passage is called the ‘Lament’ or the ‘Complaint’ or, in more pleasant word usage, it is often called the ‘Confessions of Jeremiah’.  

This passage is considered by many to be the most difficult section of the Old Testament. Jeremiah is frustrated with everything and everyone.  He followed God’s call to bring the people back to God.  However, instead of returning the God, the people have, instead turned on Jeremiah.  The entitled and rich have been especially difficult, they have not only belittled and rejected his words, and person, they have also used their money, power, and position to try to silence Jeremiah. Hateful words have led to violent physical suffering.  

Jeremiah is frustrated, no, he is angry, he is done.

In this honest lament/complaint to, and about God, Jeremiah actually calls God a ‘dishonest brook’ from which is cautious to even drink the water.  Often it is necessary for us to ‘name our complaints’ to God, even those which are about God, so we can freely understand what we are asking of God – and, are then ready to hear God.

The basic context, in addition to the over a century of rejected prophesies from Isaiah and Jeremiah, is that are now coming true.  Judah has been destroyed, the temple is a pile of ruin, and their best and brightest have been exiled to slavery.

Psalm 26:1-8

Psalm 26 is a Psalm of praise, and even more a Psalm of the recognition of who God is.  Think about our Matthew passage last week when Jesus asked the disciples ‘Who do You say that I Am?’  In chapter 26, the psalmist is fully recognizing who God is, and, at the same time, placing that knowledge and understanding of God in juxtaposition to the Kings and leaders of the day. To Moses God gives his name as ‘I am,’ here, the Psalmist is giving the leaders the name ‘I am not.’

Matthew 16:21-28

Our reading last week was the first 20 verses of this chapter where we saw Jesus firming up the ‘measure of faith’ given to the disciples (especially Peter) for the purpose of surviving the coming difficulties and struggles.  That makes this reading, and our understanding of the heaviness of what Jesus is saying this week, a bit easier to understand — however, it also makes it much, much, more difficult to comprehend.  This is a difficult passage, it is a painful moment in Jesus’ relationship with Peter.  Take a moment to go back and read the first 20 verses of chapter 16, if you were not able to take in the message this Sunday, that  centered on those first 20 verses, take 30 minutes to watch/listen/or read that message, then, return to verses 21-28.  Basically, this week, Peter, who was called a Rock and given the keys to the Kingdom last week, is, this week, called Satan. That is quite a reversal of a good day. 

Peter goes from being ‘the Rock’ to being ‘the Stumbling Block.’

“The soaring heights of Peter’s commitment is matched by the depth of his failure to follow.”

Audrey West, Moravian Theological Seminary

Ponder the motivations for Peter to say what he said.  While there there is surely a level of philanthropic motive on his part, attempt to go deeper to find the catalyst that may be more selfish and less benevolent.  Hint, maybe go back and think about Jesus’ time of temptation in the wilderness with the true Satan.

Romans 12:9-21

Our Romans passage is basically a power point teaching, or it could be referred to as a picture, of what it looks like to live the Christian life.  In our quest for context here, we must look back that the opening statement of this chapter in which Paul says, 

‘present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your minds, so that you may discern what is the will of God—what is good and acceptable and perfect.’
Romans 12:1b - 2

Our Romans passage for this week is the ‘how to’ for Paul’s instruction at the beginning of chapter 12.

Consider the practicalities, and the hindrances’ to living out this very practical teaching.

08.17.20 – 08.23.20

08.17.20 – 08.23.20

Reading

Isaiah 51:1-6 • Exodus 1:8-2:10 • Psalm 138:1-8 • Matthew 16:13-20

Context

Isaiah 51:1-6

This can be a very difficult passage to understand, especially when we come to it in this fashion – not really doing a deep study of it but just reading select passages.  We have covered the basics however, so, we can always have a foundational understanding.

Important Basics

  1. Isaiah is the major prophet (means a lifelong career as a prophet, sacrificing all else to proclaim God’s good, but mostly bad news).
  2. Isaiah’s main job was to warn the people that they needed to return to God.  However, the ‘end’ that he was proclaiming was not going to be within the lifetime of the majority of his readers, so warning them against something they cannot see is a tough sell.
  3. Although they cannot see what is happening that will lead to their eventual dismiss, the signs of their turning from God are there, however, they have occurred gradually so it is easy to not see them.
  4. There are some (who he is addressing in today’s passage) that are listening, and are paying attention, and are seeing what is going on, and may even be catching on to what is coming
  5. Jeremiah, who is given the same mission as Isaiah, follows Isaiah and actually is alive as the prophesies come true.

Sspecific context for this passage – Isaiah is speaking to those who do believe and are listening.  He is assuring them that God will take the coming devastation and waste and make it good again (even better). Probably giving them a hope for their descendants if nothing else – and a reason to not give up. God, through Isaiah, is basically telling them that he (God) is going to fundamentally alter their negative reality, he is going to turn it all upside down.

Exodus 1:8-2:10

Let me begin by saying ‘WOW, what a story!’ The more I read, and study, this passage, the more I am in awe of all the real life choices, trust, and faith, that went in to the events of this introduction of the story of Moses and the eventual deliverance of the Israelites.  Honestly, even as I am typing this primer, I am having to hold back from all that is in the treasure chest that is just this passage!

So, Basic Context – It is around 500 years after the story of Joseph. That means that it is 500 years after the people have been saved from starvation by Joseph, 500 years after Jacob and his family have been moved to Egypt, 500 years in which God’s promise to Abraham and Sarah of descendants who will be a ‘people’ will be numerous.  The main elements of the promise yet to be fulfilled are freedom and land…that is going to happen.

It is also 500 years, during which the people have failed to teach and remind each other, and their descendants, of the ancestors’ deliverer  – Joesph.

Now they have a new King, who does ‘know’ Joseph.

HOW DO YOU FORGET JOSEPH?!

How is it possible that a ruler of a country does not know the significant moments of the history of that country?

Enough of my rant.

As you read through this section of this story, look at the different significant players in these early days of the life of Moses.  Ask yourself, who were the first players in this story of deliverance who ‘fired the first shot?’ Who were the first sacrificially acting individuals who dared to deny to follow his brutal demands?  Hint, look for five women, one of whom was not a Israelite.

Also, consider how desperate Moses’ mother must have been to think that the best chance for her son to survive this horrible political violent situation was to put him into a basket and down a river.  Maybe consider this along side the parents, in Central America, a short time ago, who felt the best way to save their own children from the violence and unrest in their country was to put them onto a loaded train and send them north.

Psalm 138:1-8

One of the most difficult aspect of being and doing ‘church’ in the midst of this time of pandemic is the aspect of music and singing.  While we can do most everything with technology that we do in persons as we traditionally gather for worship – our traditional use of music, particularly congregational singing.  One of the things I love to do on Sunday mornings as we are transmitting the worship time on zoom, is to take a sneak peak at one of the screens in order to see many lips moving as several of you are singing.  Singing is a very traditional, and eternal way of offering praise – being able to do it physically together is difficult to duplicate through a screen.  God is teaching us though, we will get there.

This is a Psalm of praise, particularly, a Psalm of Thanksgiving. Its song sings for us to remember how God is with us in the midst of adversity, and how he will ‘take care’ of those who inflict pain and oppression.

Matthew 16:13-20

Up to this point, in the book of Matthew, Jesus journey has been primarily experiential.  He has seen the brutality of their oppression, he has sat beside them in their grief, he has healed their sickness, he has cured their disease, he has addressed their hunger, he has taught, he has confronted, he has loved, he has embraced, he has rejoiced, he has suffered – he has completed his understanding of the human experience and of the reality of pain and suffering of the human condition.  Think back to all of the experiences you have seen Jesus have, consider his responses, and contemplate the truths that he has taught through them.

The passage this week is a turning point in Jesus’ public ministry. He now heads in a different direction. While he is blatantly headed to Jerusalem, he is also beginning to point his followers in the same direction.  In this passage, he is bringing the truth of ‘who is Jesus?’ to a very personal place, ‘Who do YOU think I am?’ This is essential as his followers will need to ‘firm up’ their belief to be able to stand in the days ahead.

Who do you say Jesus is?

Romans 12:1-8

This is a huge passage.  It is one that we have heard, studied, and even dissected before, but it is also one that will forever hold new instructions for our ever changing realities.  Take a moment to think of all that we have seen Paul teach up to this passage.  We have seen him, not only talk about sin, but he has redefined our understanding of sin, taking us much deeper than it just being about wrong action. We also, as we approach this passage, must not forget about his dilemma in understanding God’s promises and actions to, and towards, his own people, the Jews, now that they have largely rejected Jesus. Finally, we must remember that he has declared that his struggle with understanding God’s promises in regard to his own people is a ‘mystery’ that may not ever be understood here on earth, but that we know that God will not, and cannot, reject his own people.

Now, in this passage, Paul is talking about the Church, our Christian faith community.  He is speaking to our own actions (remember our look at Matthew from 08.16.20 as Jesus talked about what is inside eventually comes out for the world to see).  But he also talks about the necessity of our community of faith, our church, in order to grow and mature. Plus, he addresses the need for all of us to take responsibility for ‘our’ community.

There are some interesting phrases in this passage – ‘Living Sacrifice’, ‘Transformation’, ‘Renewing of mind’, ‘Grace given’, plus many more….don’t just read through these and think of the meaning you have always been given – think about them anew.  Struggle with them.

08.10.20 – 08.16.20

Readings 

Genesis 45:1-15 • Psalm 67 • Isaiah 56:1-8 • Matthew 15:10-28 • Romans 11:1-20a, 29-32

Context

Genesis 45:1-15

The story of Joesph is an amazing story, and, sadly,  this time around, we have not had the time it takes to get a full appreciation for this interesting character.  You probably feel like you already know this story, however, if you have time, read through it again.  It begins in chapter 37 and goes all that way through the end of Genesis (chapter 50 – skip chapter 38 it is an odd detour you can take later).  Joseph is a refreshing character – especially if you compare him to basically everyone else in the book of Genesis.  As you consider the story of Joesph, remember the brother of Jacob, Esau, who forgives his brother of heinous acts.  Consider the power that Joseph ends the story with and the ways that he uses that power – think also of all the ways he could have used the power (how would you have used the power in his shoes?). Joseph chose reconciliation and peace over revenge and resentment.  Joseph chose to dismantle the system of vengeance and, instead, responded with redemption and forgiveness. 

What do you think? In our Tuesday Bible Project group, as we were discussing Joesph, Mitch commented that he thought the forgiveness of Joesph towards his brothers was not a difficult journey because he was solely focused on the dreams, the calling and mission, that God had given him. 

What do you think?

Psalm 67

Our Psalm passage begins with a version of the Aaronic benediction used as an exit blessing,

“The Lord bless you and keep you; the Lord make his face to shine upon you and be gracious to you; the Lord lift up his countenance upon you, and give you peace”.  

Numbers 6:24-26

The theological category of blessing is one of the most important in the Old Testament—a theme that is often underappreciated in protestant theology. The great theologian Claus Westermann contrasted two general aspects of God’s merciful action towards humanity: God’s saving activity and God’s blessing activity. For good reason, protestant Old Testament theology has strongly emphasized God’s saving activity—forgiving sin, rescuing from oppression, saving from death and the like. But the Old Testament consistently speaks of another sphere of God’s mercy: the blessing activity of God—fruitful harvests, fertility, health, prosperity, and the like. Psalm 67 majors in an area in which the church has often minored—the longing request for God’s blessing.

Rolf Jacobson, Luther Seminary

As we have seen before, a blessing is given in order that the receiver can bless others. Blessing is not just about us.  Psalm 67 is about the source of blessings and our opportunity to reflect, and share, that blessing through our lives.

Isaiah 56:1-8

This passage may be one of the most powerful sections of the book of Isaiah.  Isaiah is moving the Israelites from a system of ‘institutional ritualism’ to a ‘right heart’ system. Basically, he is telling the Israelites, who have legally rejected any acceptance of Eunuchs and any foreigners into their faith, now, Isaiah is instructing them to accept both of these groups.  This is a radical message even today!  Eunuchs, often times by choice, were men who had basically become ‘degendered’, think about the ‘trans’ issues of today; also, it doesn’t take much description for us to see the pertinence to us, in our time, that ‘foreigners’ were also named.

Matthew 15:10-28

Oh my gosh…what a passage!  I have to admit that in the past I have quickly read through this passage, primarily because I have been put off by 4 things in the passage.  

First, some basic context.  Remember Matthew’s chronology of the events up to this point.  The parables about sower, seeds, and pulling weeds.  Recognize that this passage follows Jesus sending the disciples out to the oppressed and hurting Jews, the feeding of the 5,000 plus people, and Jesus walking on water. 

Now, let me share my four points of contention, add your own as you read over this passage.

  1. Honestly, this is a recent addition to my complaints, in the midst of a pandemic when we have been told over and over to wash our hands and to cover our face, to now hear Jesus say ‘it is not what goes into the mouth that defiles a person’ is just plain disconcerting and painful.
  2. Jesus response to the gentile Canaanite woman, ‘I was sent only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,’ seems unnecessarily harsh and ‘unChristlike’.
  3. His response to Peter, ‘Are you also still without understanding? ‘ seems inappropriate since Jesus is the teacher in this relationship – frankly, this is a personal grudge, on my part, that has increased as we have read Jesus’ comments to his disciples in Matthew (remember Jesus said to the rescued Peter, ‘You of little faith’).
  4. Jesus refers to the woman, and her people, as a dog and she just goes with the bigotry.

I am only going to address concern #3, here, we will hold the others until  Sunday (definately #2 and #4 on Sunday, I may just let you stew on #1 for eternity).  Jesus’ harsh language is unique to Matthew’s writing, and transliteration.  While it sounds harsh to us, it was not heard as offensive then.  Think of ‘Are you also still without understanding? ‘ as being, ‘ I need to explain this more effectively, let’s try this again.’or ‘You of little faith’ faith as being, ‘Let’s save such a big faith move to later, after you get to know me better, and can trust me more.’

Read this passage multiple times, go at it from different directions, put yourself in the place of each of the listeners.

One More Thing…

Again, in our Tuesday night Bible project (which resumes on Tuesday, August 18, a great time to give it a try), we begin by asking for the heroes and villains of our assigned passage. 

My vote for the hero of this story is the Gentile Canaanite woman.

What Do You think?

Romans 11:1-20a, 29-32

Paul is coming to a close (chapters 9-11) of his questioning, and attempting to understand, what the Jews’ rejection means in regard to God’s promises to them.  Chapter 11 is powerful, as Paul asks, “Are we saying that God, rejects God’s people?” his answer is an emphatic ‘NO’.

Paul says that this is a mystery, but in no way can we justify saying that God’s people have been rejected by God.  Think about this in regard to the underlying anti-semitism in our country and our world, that frequently raises its ugly head in such violent ways.  Paul’s message is a direct attack on those who would think, speak, or act on such a heretical theology.

If God does reject God’s people, what does that say about God?  What does it say about those who proclaim such a theology? How does it come into conflict with everything else you know about God?

It is a mystery!

08.03.20 – 08.09.20

Readings

Genesis 37:1-4, 12-28; I Kings 19:9-18; Psalm 85:8-13; Matthew 14:22-33; Romans 10:5-15

Context

I Kings 19:9-18

The prophet Elijah has just experienced the power of God in an amazing and dramatic spectacle.  Read about it in chapter 18. He had challenged, and stood up to, the threatening 150 prophets of Baal. Not only did Elijah ‘out amazing them’ all, but by the end of this story, the false prophets were killed.  It was an exciting and exhausting day, Elijah walked away with the awe of all the people.  All the people except for one, that is, King Ahab ran home and told his wife Jezebel, a far more frightening person than the false prophets. Jezebel was furious – people knew to hide when the King’s wife was not happy – they also knew to just give up and surrender to death if she held a grudge against you.  She sent a note directly to Elijah promising to kill him within 24 hours, in the same manner he had killed the prophets.

Even though Elijah had just seen the power of God on full display through him, he still reacted to Jezebel’s threat with great fear and anxiety.  Elijah ran away, God sustained him through his run but eventually asked him why he was running away.  ‘What are you doing here?’ God asked. God was not pleased that Elijah had allowed fear to grip him following such an amazing act that should affirm his trust in God.

Notice, notice the aspect of silence and the presence of God, remember this also as you read the story the calming silence following Jesus climbing into the boat with the disciples. How often do you miss the appearance of God, or his works, because it is in silence, or some other unexpected form, that you are not expecting?

Genesis 37:1-4, 12-28

We are now beginning the story of the favorite son of Jacob – Joseph.  As we have seen, Jacob has a very sordid past, especially when it comes to family relationships.  This past Sunday we saw Jacob’s  movement towards transformation as he wrestled God for an entire night.  However, Jacob still had some very rough edges after his struggle with God.  Probably the worst, and the most applicable rough edge seen in the story of Joesph is his propensity to show blatant favoritism in this family.  His favorite wife was Rachel, who was the mother of his favorite son Joseph. Everyone knew this was true, his other wife Leah, the servants who had birthed many of his other children, and all the other children, especially Joseph’s brothers.  To aggravate matters worse, Joseph, as a young child/teen, was not always the best on social cues – he often innocently flaunted his status of favorite which didn’t go over well with the brothers. They called him a ‘Dreamer’ with the most hateful of undertones.  Some call this first section of the Joseph story ‘Joesph the Jerk.’ It is a brutal story of an annoying younger brother who suffers from the dysfunctional trauma inflicted on the family by his father – dysfunctional families is a constant theme in the book of Genesis. The miracle of the story of Joseph is that he, not only became an amazing counter to the lives of all his ancestors, he also becomes the rescuer of nations, his family, and his people.

Consider the cultural reality inherent in this story – the kinship factor of life, the safety and security, that existed in the family unit and no where else, was the primary stabilizing factor in life. Regardless of the dysfunction of a family, it is still the first place people run back to.  Joesph had this factor taken from his as he was separated from his family, accentuated by the fact that this separation from family was not an outside force, outrageously, it came from within his family, his brothers.

We are all connected by either a faith connection or just the fact that we are all created and loved by God – we are all human.

Compare this monetarily trafficking  of one’s own family member to our current reality of our brothers and sisters who have a different skin color than we do. Historically we have connections to their enslavement, their mistreatment, and now, they are having to use protests and screaming voices for us to fully recognize what we have done to family. Think about the ‘us vs. them’ manipulations of many politicians as well as many religious leaders to divide and justify their statements and tweets. The verses 19-20 are the words on the outside of the Loraine Hotel in Memphis where Martin Luther King was assassinated. ‘Violence destroys dreams’ – this may be the miracle in the life of Joseph, that he did not let the dreams that God have him be destroyed by the actions of his own kin. He was a dreamer.

Ironically, our current headlines document stories of children who were illegally brought into our country by their parents decades ago, growing up as Americans, knowing nothing else, and now our government is doing everything it can to send them to a home they have never known – ironically they also are called ‘Dreamers’.

As you read this familiar story, read it once from the viewpoint of the brothers, especially the older brothers who were meant to be the mentors, establishing the younger boys as central members of a family. Consider the factor of jealousy in their lives and the lives of their mothers. Consider the destructive impact that jealousy has had in your life.

Consider the life of a dreamer.

Psalm 85:8-13

Psalm 85 begins with a reminder that God has rescued and received his people which is then followed by plea to do the same again –  the remaining verses  remind us of who and what God is.  These are descriptive words defining the person, character, and actions of God.  As you read, it may be helpful to write the words, and phrases, that tell us these aspects of God, see how they tie together (such as in vs. 10- ‘Steadfast love and faithfulness will meet; righteousness and peace will kiss each other’).  How do these descriptions compare with the image you have of God?

Matthew 14:22-33

In the context prior to of our Matthew passage last week, the feeding of the 5,000, we saw Jesus seriously in need of time to rest and time to recuperate.  He had been very busy – it was mentally, emotionally, and physically exhausting – mercy and compassion always are.  This was leading up to an even more exhausting time.  Jesus’ compassion had not permitted him to rest, even though he was worn out. As he saw the hurting and oppressed crowds, his mercy and concern pushed him to address the needs of the people.  Instead of resting, he just exhausted himself more. After Jesus had seen the last of the crowds leave, he put the disciples on a boat and he walked up the mountain to pray and rest.

One other context note is that this is still fairly earthly in Jesus’ ministry as well as in his relationship with his disciples. This was before he asked them ‘Who do you think I am?’; now, they were still getting to know, and trust, him and each other.  They knew a bit more in the morning of this story however, just hours before they had witnessed the abundance of food after Jesus fed the people, a feast for over 5,000 people, a feast that began with just 5 loaves of bread and 2 fish.

The last time they were on a boat with Jesus there was a huge storm and Jesus calmed the storm. This probably was especially was on their mind as the winds picked up and the waves grew stronger and the boat began to rock – except for one issue, Jesus was not in the boat with them to survive this storm. On top of this, they see an unidentified figure seemingly walking on the water and moving towards them.  It was a terrifying morning.

Romans 10:5-15

This week we continue Paul’s three chapter questions to God about his people, the Jews, who rejected Jesus.  Paul is not expressing a doubting of God but searching for an understanding of how these people, who have taught him the faith, have not recognized Jesus as the Messiah. Paul is struggling with the implications of this disbelief in regard to the acts of God in leading these people throughout history, and, what does it do to the promises that God has made to them, and about them?  Last week we saw the passion of Paul on this heartfelt concern as he said that he would gladly give up his own salvation if it meant that these he loves would believe. Paul is attempting to comprehend what all this means and he is doing it while navigating a hurting heart.

07.27.20 – 08.02.20

Readings 

Psalm 145:8-9, 14-21 • Genesis 32:22-31 • Isaiah 55:1-5 • Matthew 14:13-21 • Romans 9:1-5

Context

Psalm 145:8-9, 14-21

Psalm 145 is used in more Jewish prayers than any other Psalm.  It is best described as a mini-summary of the Jewish faith – ‘God is to be praised from the beginning to the end’ everyday, good days and bad days. Whereas, in Christianity we often look at the concept of ‘blessing’ as being a ‘me thing’ – ‘I will get….’ Or ‘I will…..’, but Psalm 145 defines ‘blessing’ as being for others.

‘We praise God, for God has chosen you, to bless, not you, but all others.’

Jason Byassee, Vancouver School of Theology

Genesis 32:22-31

As I said last week, it is difficult to enjoy, and even to find redemption in any biblical story of Jacob. He has been horrible to his brother, deceived his dad, abused his mother’s favor, has been a horrible husband, and therefore a horrible example to his kids, now we see Jacob, for the second time 20 years after his first cowardice, running away to avoid the serious physical conflict. It is also difficult not to paint Jacob as a scoundrel in this story as well.  However, it is in this story that the Jewish faith sees a pivotal moment in which Jacob becomes a role model for the faithful – they would say that Jacob becomes an example of the practices of Judaism.

We will be diving into the intricacies of this passage on Sunday but, in the meantime, after you have chapter 32 and considered it, it will be helpful to read what happens next for Jacob in chapter 33.

Isaiah 5:1-5

As we approach these five verses it will help to understand these things:

  • The Israelites are living in a brutal time that is difficult for us to fully understand.  They (in Judah) have been militarily attacked by the surrounding nations (even attacked by Israel), often defeated and dominated by imperial powers. 
  • They lived an agrarian lifestyle, made more difficult by the fact that cultivating the land was difficult due to the climate of low rainfall, crazy heat and cold, and mediocre soil. Making matter worse, they used a barter system, in a time when the imperial powers were implementing a system of silver (money).
  • The words of Isaiah are on behalf of God warning the people of the coming Babylonian exile (still over a century away) – he is also speaking to their ultimate deliverance and hope. This passage is largely an effort to raise morale of a longing community,  They may not be listening to his message of ‘return to God’ but they are longing for hope during their immediate existence.  
  • The reference to ‘thirst’ and ‘water’ is probably a call to all (we all thirst – not just in desperate times). The metaphor, and reality, is that water is the solution.
  • Reference to David is much larger than just the King, it is the entire community of the Israelites.
  • Feast is the way wealth was revealed and shared.  Few actually had money, but a feast was a sharing (usually with everyone’s participation).  It was a mark of a recognition of abundance even when it seems to be a time of desperation. 
  • Money, wealth, and labor are privileges that should not be wasted on something other than bread.  Bread is a major part of feasts. Wealth and labor are a waste if they are not used to provide the essential things
  • Much of what Isaiah says in these first five verses, especially the beginning image, is of a Utopia which is an eschatological reference – it is still relevant to their current state.

Matthew 14:13-21

In the previous chapter we saw Jesus tell 8 parables – the final 6 of which were parables describing the Kingdom of heaven.  The first two of those parables, the wild sower of seed and the wicked sower of weeds among the wheat told how to live with a strong & growing faith, then, the final 6 parables Jesus reminds us where we live.  This week, in chapter 14 we could easily say that it is Jesus giving us a real life demonstration of both of those themes.

‘Jesus is living between the darkest moment and the dawn of a new movement of God’s healing work.’

Joy J. Moore, professor of biblical preaching, Luther seminary

In addition to the understanding of chapter 13, the first 12 verses of chapter 14 set up the immediate context of the story in our passage. John finds out that his relative who could possibly be described as a mentor, has just been brutally executed by King Herod. John was killed not because Herod chose to kill him but because Herod stupidly backed himself into a corner while attempting to impress others – the only way to avoid humiliation was to kill John.  As Jesus hears this devastating news, he decides a brief time of rest is required and withdraws to a ‘deserted place’.  This escape last only a short moment as the crowds find him and, once again, he is in the midst of addressing the physical needs of the people.

One note as you read: In verse 14 of this reading we see:

‘When he went ashore, he saw a great crowd; and he had compassion for them and cured their sick.

This phrase ‘he had compassion’, in the greek is splagchnizomai, meaning ‘to be moved in the inward parts’.  This word, in verse 14 is a verb – meaning this is an action word, it involves more than emotions, it is a gut reaction that moves a person to do something in regard to that feeling.

Romans 9:1-5

Romans 9-11 are often used by those who are anti-Semitic (hateful and condemning towards Jews) to affirm their hateful rhetoric.  However, their interpretation and understanding of what Paul is saying in these three chapters could not be more egregiously wrong.  Our passage for this week is a prayer, prayed by Paul, questioning God. He is passionate about the Israelites, who are his people, and crushed by their rejection of Jesus Christ as the Messiah.  His despondency is not an attack, or even criticism, of the those who come from his own heritage of faith – it is a question to God.  He is not asking ‘What is wrong with these people?’ instead, he is asking, ‘God, what are you doing about this situation?.  His question is about the past promises to the Israelites, ‘what happens to those promises and all that has taken place with their journey with God?’ Basically, he knows of the reliability of God but wondering how this will all work out now that most of the Jews have rejected Jesus. He is not accusing God of abandoning the Jews but intensely wanting to understand how this all fits together.  This is a prayer of great passion and love for his own people.